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Birmingham, Alabama 35294

  • Pregnancy


To determine whether the rate of HIV transmission from mother to infant can be reduced by continuous oral zidovudine (AZT) treatment to HIV infected pregnant women, intravenous AZT during childbirth, and oral AZT treatment of the newborn infant from birth to six weeks of age. The study is also designed to evaluate the safety of AZT for both the pregnant woman and the newborn infant. No method exists to prevent transmission of HIV from an infected mother to her newborn infant. Giving an antiviral agent (such as AZT) to the mother and to the newborn could in theory decrease the risk of infection to the newborn by reducing the exposure of the fetus to maternal virus, or by preventive treatment of the fetus before exposure.

Study summary:

No method exists to prevent transmission of HIV from an infected mother to her newborn infant. Giving an antiviral agent (such as AZT) to the mother and to the newborn could in theory decrease the risk of infection to the newborn by reducing the exposure of the fetus to maternal virus, or by preventive treatment of the fetus before exposure. Patients are enrolled during their pregnancy, between 14 and 34 weeks of gestation. They are chosen by random selection to receive AZT or placebo. Treatment continues until labor at which time they begin to receive continuous intravenous study drug. Study drug treatment is discontinued after the umbilical cord is clamped. AZT is then offered all women as per labeled indications for 6 weeks postpartum, while appropriate medical followup is being arranged. Mothers who develop an AIDS defining illness or whose CD4+ cell counts decrease to less than 200 cells/mm3 during pregnancy are offered open-label drug at that time. The mother is followed by her primary obstetrician at an AIDS Clinical Trials Unit (ACTU) or subunit facility. The mother may deliver at the ACTU or a non-ACTU site. Treatment of the infant is started in the newborn nursery and continues on an outpatient basis. Infants receive the same study treatment as the mother for 6 weeks, and are monitored to week 78.


Inclusion Criteria Concurrent Medication: Allowed for infants: - Treatment for signs of drug withdrawal (e.g., phenobarbital, chlorpromazine, tincture of opium, paregoric, or Valium). - Treatment for nonserious conditions (e.g., syphilis treatment, hepatitis B vaccine). - All essential supportive treatment for conditions that are nonlife threatening as deemed by the on-site pediatrician. - Acetaminophen. - Standard immunizations. - Allowed for women: - All medications/treatments as required for normal OB care of HIV+ women, except as noted under exclusions. - Pneumocystis prophylaxis as indicated. - Topical steroids. Parenteral and oral steroids for 6 or fewer days. Concurrent Treatment: Allowed for pregnant woman: Blood transfusion for anemia (hemoglobin less than 7 g/dl). Allowed for infant: - Blood transfusions for anemia except if attributed to study drug. - Patients must: - Have HIV infection. - Intend to carry pregnancy to term. - Be willing to be followed by a participating ACTG center for duration of the study. - Be able to provide informed consent (if available, father of the fetus must also provide informed consent). - Infants may enroll simultaneously in other pediatric protocols after completing the initial 6 weeks of study treatment. - Inclusion age for women is 13 years old or more or IRB local age of consent. - Inclusion age for infants is 0 to 20 months. Exclusion Criteria Co-existing Condition: Infants with the following conditions or symptoms are excluded: - Requiring treatment for hyperbilirubinemia (except phototherapy). Concurrent Medication: Excluded: - Infants: - Antiretroviral drugs or vaccines. - Excluded during current pregnancy: - Zidovudine (AZT). - Other antiretroviral agents (e.g., rCD4, CD4-IgG, d4T, didanosine (ddI), dideoxycytidine (ddC)), passive immunotherapy (e.g., HIVIG), anti-HIV vaccines, cytolytic chemotherapeutic agents. - Corticosteroids for equal to or more than 7 days. Patients with the following are excluded: - Evidence of preexisting fetal anomalies that may (1) result in a high probability that the fetus/infant will not survive to the end of the study period (e.g., anencephaly, renal agenesis, or Potter's syndrome); or (2) increase the fetal tissue concentration of zidovudine (AZT) or its metabolites to a toxic level (e.g., neural tube or ventral wall defects). - Baseline sonogram completed within 28 days prior to randomization that demonstrates 2nd trimester findings of anencephaly or oligohydramnios, or 3rd trimester findings of unexplained polyhydramnios, fetal hydrops, ascites or other evidence of preexisting in-utero anemia. - History of intolerance to AZT dose of 500 or less mg/day prior to this pregnancy that resulted in discontinuation of treatment for more than 4 weeks. - Recipient of AZT during current pregnancy for any indication or meet criteria for AZT as defined by this protocol (CD4+ cell counts less than 200 cells/mm3 or AIDS). - Infants not having parent/guardian available to give informed consent if necessary. Prior Treatment: Excluded during current pregnancy: - Radiation therapy.

Study is Available At:

Original ID:

ACTG 076



Secondary ID:


Study Acronym:

Brief Title:

The Safety and Effectiveness of Zidovudine in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women and Their Infants

Official Title:

A Phase III Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy, Safety and Tolerance of Oral Zidovudine (AZT) in Pregnant HIV Infected Women and Their Infants

Overall Status:


Study Phase:

Phase 3



Minimum Age:


Maximum Age:

60 Years

Quick Facts

Healthy Volunteers
Oversight Has DMC
Study Is FDA Regulated
Study Is Section 801
Has Expanded Access

Study Source:

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

Oversight Authority:

United States: Federal Government

Reasons Why Stopped:

Study Type:


Study Design:

Primary Purpose: Treatment

Number of Arms:


Number of Groups:


Total Enrollment:


Enrollment Type:

Overall Contact Information

Official Name:E Connor
Study Chair

Study Dates

Completion Date:June 1994
Completion Type:Actual
Verification Date:March 2012
Last Changed Date:May 15, 2015
First Received Date:November 2, 1999

Study Outcomes

There are no available Study Outcomes

Study Interventions

Intervention Type:Drug

Study Arms

There are no available Study Arms

Study Agencies

Agency Class:NIH
Agency Type:Lead Sponsor
Agency Name:National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Agency Class:Industry
Agency Type:Collaborator
Agency Name:Glaxo Wellcome

Sample and Retention Information

There are no available Sample and Retention Information

Study References

Reference Type:Reference
Citation:Sperling RS, Shapiro DE, Coombs RW, Todd JA, Herman SA, McSherry GD, O'Sullivan MJ, Van Dyke RB, Jimenez E, Rouzioux C, Flynn PM, Sullivan JL. Maternal viral load, zidovudine treatment, and the risk of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from mother to infant. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 076 Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1996 Nov 28;335(22):1621-9.
Reference Type:Reference
Citation:Connor EM, Sperling RS, Gelber R, Kiselev P, Scott G, O'Sullivan MJ, VanDyke R, Bey M, Shearer W, Jacobson RL, et al. Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovudine treatment. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 076 Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1994 Nov 3;331(18):1173-80.
Reference Type:Reference
Citation:Sperling RS, Shapiro DE, McSherry GD, Britto P, Cunningham BE, Culnane M, Coombs RW, Scott G, Van Dyke RB, Shearer WT, Jimenez E, Diaz C, Harrison DD, Delfraissy JF. Safety of the maternal-infant zidovudine regimen utilized in the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trial Group 076 Study. AIDS. 1998 Oct 1;12(14):1805-13.
Reference Type:Reference
Citation:Wiznia AA, Crane M, Lambert G, Sansary J, Harris A, Solomon L. Zidovudine use to reduce perinatal HIV type 1 transmission in an urban medical center. JAMA. 1996 May 15;275(19):1504-6.
Reference Type:Reference
Citation:Rouzioux C. Prevention of maternal HIV transmission. Practical guidelines. Drugs. 1995;49 Suppl 1:17-24; discussion 38-40. Review.
Reference Type:Reference
Citation:Dickover RE, Garratty EM, Herman SA, Sim MS, Plaeger S, Boyer PJ, Keller M, Deveikis A, Stiehm ER, Bryson YJ. Identification of levels of maternal HIV-1 RNA associated with risk of perinatal transmission. Effect of maternal zidovudine treatment on viral load. JAMA. 1996 Feb 28;275(8):599-605.
Reference Type:Reference
Citation:Culnane M, Fowler M, Lee SS, McSherry G, Brady M, O'Donnell K, Mofenson L, Gortmaker SL, Shapiro DE, Scott G, Jimenez E, Moore EC, Diaz C, Flynn PM, Cunningham B, Oleske J. Lack of long-term effects of in utero exposure to zidovudine among uninfected children born to HIV-infected women. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 219/076 Teams. JAMA. 1999 Jan 13;281(2):151-7.
Reference Type:Reference
Citation:Shearer WT, Quinn TC, LaRussa P, Lew JF, Mofenson L, Almy S, Rich K, Handelsman E, Diaz C, Pagano M, Smeriglio V, Kalish LA. Viral load and disease progression in infants infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Women and Infants Transmission Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1997 May 8;336(19):1337-42.
Reference Type:Reference
Citation:Frenkel LM, Cowles MK, Shapiro DE, Melvin AJ, Watts DH, McLellan C, Mohan K, Murante B, Burchett S, Bryson YJ, O'Sullivan MJ, Mitchell C, Landers D. Analysis of the maternal components of the AIDS clinical trial group 076 zidovudine regimen in the prevention of mother-to-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Infect Dis. 1997 Apr;175(4):971-4.
Reference Type:Reference
Citation:Newell ML, Gray G, Bryson YJ. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 infection. AIDS. 1997;11 Suppl A:S165-72. Review.
Reference Type:Results Reference
Citation:Edathodu J, Halim MM, Dahham MB, Alrajhi AA. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV: experience at a referral hospital in Saudi Arabia. Ann Saudi Med. 2010 Jan-Feb;30(1):15-7. doi: 10.4103/0256-4947.59367.

Data Source:

Date Processed: April 03, 2020

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