Los Angeles, California 90095

  • Chronic Angle Closure Glaucoma


Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness in the world. The key to prevention of visual loss from glaucoma is early detection of the disease or its progression and timely treatment. The proposed study will investigate the role of various tests in improving detection of disease progression in advanced glaucoma. Evaluation of the peripheral field of vision (visual field examination) remains the current standard for detection of progression in glaucoma. However, there is a lot of variability or inconsistency in eyes with advanced glaucoma, which could make it difficult to detect worsening of glaucoma with visual fields. The optic nerve demonstrates significant damage in such eyes and hence oftentimes repeat imaging of the optic nerve head is not helpful for detection of change. Therefore, imaging of the central retina (the innermost sensitive tissue lining the inside of the eye), called macula, has been proposed to supplant imaging of the nerve in eyes with severe glaucoma. The macula aids in detailed central vision. Since the macular retinal neural cells are the last ones to be affected in glaucoma, measurement of macular retinal thickness could provide significant information with regard to the course of glaucoma. In the proposed study, glaucoma patients will be tested and followed with various measurements done with newer versions of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging and visual field machines. The patients will undergo repeat imaging and visual field testing every 6 months over the course of 5 years. Rates of change will be estimated. We will explore if changes in various outcome measures derived from imaging are correlated with the corresponding visual field changes in glaucoma, and whether the former can be used as an alternative method for detecting simultaneous or subsequent glaucoma progression. The hypothesis for this proposed research is that macular OCT parameters are valid structural measures that can be used especially in advanced disease to follow the course of glaucoma.

Study summary:

Glaucoma is a major public health issue worldwide and manifests clinically as a chronic progressive optic neuropathy with concomitant visual field (VF) loss. Glaucoma can cause significant visual disability and decreased quality of life (1). Based on WHO's report in 2002, glaucoma is the second cause of blindness. The key to prevention of visual loss from glaucoma is early detection of the disease or its progression and timely treatment. Glaucoma can be quite advanced at the time of initial detection. The prevalence of advanced glaucoma at the time of diagnosis varies but can be quite high. For example, the average VF mean deviation (MD) in patients diagnosed with glaucoma in the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study was -9.6 dB (2), which represents moderately advanced to severe glaucoma. Detection of progression in advanced stages of glaucoma continues to be challenging. Visual field examination remains the gold standard for detection of progression in advanced glaucoma. However, long-term VF variability or noise in such eyes is significant, which could confound detection of change. The optic nerve head and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) demonstrate significant damage in such eyes and hence are not helpful for detection of change. About 50% of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are located within 4-5 mm of the macular center (3). Since the macular RGCs are the last ones to be affected in glaucoma, measurement of macular retinal thickness or retinal sublayers could provide significant information with regard to the course of advanced glaucoma. The macular retinal sublayers can now be measured with reasonable accuracy with SD- OCTs. There is some evidence that measurement of the macular ganglion cell complex (GCC, combined thickness of RNFL, RGC and inner plexiform layer or IPL), or macular retinal thickness or volume may detect early glaucoma with a performance that approximates that of circumpapillary RNFL thickness measurements (4,5). In addition, such macular measurements have proved to be very reproducible (4,6). Given this excellent reproducibility, macular outcome measures would be the main candidates for following glaucoma eyes with advanced damage, in which the macular region is essentially the only retinal area with residual RGCs.


Inclusion Criteria: - Clinical diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma, pseudoexfoliative glaucoma, and angle closure glaucoma - Visual field MD of -6dB or worse OR visual field loss involvement at at least two points within the central 10 degrees of the field Exclusion Criteria: - Patient not within the ages of 40-80 years old - Visual acuity worse than 20/50 at baseline - Spherical refraction worse than 8D and cylindrical refraction worse than 3D - Significant retinal or neurological diseases including diabetic retinopathy or age-related macular degeneration

Study is Available At:

Original ID:

IRB# 11-003602



Secondary ID:


Study Acronym:


Brief Title:

Advanced Glaucoma Progression Study

Official Title:

Detection of Glaucoma Progression Study With Macular OCT Imaging

Overall Status:

Active, not recruiting

Study Phase:




Minimum Age:

40 Years

Maximum Age:

80 Years

Quick Facts

Healthy Volunteers
Oversight Has DMC
Study Is FDA Regulated
Study Is Section 801
Has Expanded Access

Study Source:

University of California, Los Angeles

Oversight Authority:

United States: Institutional Review Board

Reasons Why Stopped:

Study Type:


Study Design:

Number of Arms:


Number of Groups:


Total Enrollment:


Enrollment Type:


Overall Contact Information

Official Name:Kouros Nouri-Mahdavi, MD, MSc
Principal Investigator
Jules Stein Eye Institute, UCLA

Study Dates

Start Date:May 2012
Completion Date:December 2024
Completion Type:Anticipated
Primary Completion Date:December 2020
Primary Completion Type:Anticipated
Verification Date:September 2020
Last Changed Date:September 1, 2020
First Received Date:December 3, 2012

Study Outcomes

Outcome Type:Secondary Outcome
Measure:Contrast sensitivity
Time Frame:5 years
Safety Issues:False
Description:Looking at any changes in contrast sensitivity using the Vector Vision CSV-1000 eye chart.
Outcome Type:Primary Outcome
Measure:Worsening of OCT measurements
Time Frame:5 Years
Safety Issues:False
Description:Worsening of macular and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) OCT measurements.
Outcome Type:Primary Outcome
Measure:Visual field progression
Time Frame:5 years
Safety Issues:False
Description:Worsening of the MD and/or increased visual field loss within the central 10 degrees of the field.

Study Interventions

There are no available Study Interventions

Study Arms

Study Arm Type:Other
Arm Name:Advanced glaucoma
Description:Patients with MD < -6 or visual field loss within the central 10 degrees of the visual field.

Study Agencies

Agency Class:Other
Agency Type:Lead Sponsor
Agency Name:University of California, Los Angeles
Agency Class:NIH
Agency Type:Collaborator
Agency Name:National Eye Institute (NEI)

Samples and Retentions

Study Population: Advanced glaucoma patients
Sample Method:Non-Probability Sample

Study References

Reference Type:Reference
Citation:Mwanza JC, Oakley JD, Budenz DL, Chang RT, Knight OJ, Feuer WJ. Macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer: automated detection and thickness reproducibility with spectral domain-optical coherence tomography in glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Oct 21;52(11):8323-9. doi: 10.1167/iovs.11-7962.
Reference Type:Reference
Citation:Mori S, Hangai M, Sakamoto A, Yoshimura N. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography measurement of macular volume for diagnosing glaucoma. J Glaucoma. 2010 Oct-Nov;19(8):528-34. doi: 10.1097/IJG.0b013e3181ca7acf.
Reference Type:Reference
Citation:Tan O, Chopra V, Lu AT, Schuman JS, Ishikawa H, Wollstein G, Varma R, Huang D. Detection of macular ganglion cell loss in glaucoma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Ophthalmology. 2009 Dec;116(12):2305-14.e1-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2009.05.025. Epub 2009 Sep 10.
Reference Type:Reference
Citation:Curcio CA, Allen KA. Topography of ganglion cells in human retina. J Comp Neurol. 1990 Oct 1;300(1):5-25.
Reference Type:Reference
Citation:Varma R, Ying-Lai M, Francis BA, Nguyen BB, Deneen J, Wilson MR, Azen SP; Los Angeles Latino Eye Study Group. Prevalence of open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension in Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2004 Aug;111(8):1439-48.
Reference Type:Reference
Citation:McKean-Cowdin R, Wang Y, Wu J, Azen SP, Varma R; Los Angeles Latino Eye Study Group. Impact of visual field loss on health-related quality of life in glaucoma: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2008 Jun;115(6):941-948.e1. Epub 2007 Nov 12.

Data Source: ClinicalTrials.gov

Date Processed: July 27, 2021

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