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Chicago, Illinois 60611


The purpose of this study is to determine whether intraoperative (during surgery) morphine and clonidine hip injections are effective in postoperative pain management for patients undergoing hip arthroscopy.

Study summary:

Background: Over the last few decades, the use and safety of arthroscopic hip surgery has considerably improved though the evolution and development of arthroscopic imaging and instrumentation (Lynch et al., 2013). There is still a considerable amount of room for growth and research in comparison to arthroscopic knee and shoulder surgery, which have been around much longer. One area which needs attention is postoperative pain management for patients undergoing hip arthroscopy. The benefits to controlling postoperative pain range from improved patient comfort and decreased time of recovery to decreased narcotic medication usage and reduced cost of care (Ramsay 2000). Many studies on the use of morphine injections into the joint after arthroscopic knee surgery have demonstrated effectiveness in reducing both patient reported pain and narcotic medication usage after surgery (Stein et al., 1991; Yari et al., 2013; Zeng et al., 2014). Furthermore, studies have shown that joint injections of clonidine improve the pain relieving effect of morphine when the two are used in combination (Joshi et al., 2000). While there is considerable evidence supporting the use of joint injections of morphine for knee surgery, very little has been cited for such use in hip arthroscopy (Lavelle et al., 2007). The purpose of our study is to better assess the effectiveness of morphine and clonidine joint injections in reducing patient reported pain and narcotic medication usage after hip arthroscopy. Protocol: Participants in this study will be part of a trial for the use of a morphine and clonidine joint injection during hip surgery. Participants will be randomly selected to either receive a standard dose of morphine and clonidine or normal saline solution through a joint injection. The normal saline will have no active drug ingredients. In either case the injection will occur at the conclusion of surgery. The joint injection is the only change to the medical care that will occur for patients who decide to participate in this study. Pain levels will be monitored and treated after surgery, and all pain management after surgery will follow the normal standard of care. Additionally, participants will be asked to fill out a brief questionnaire before and after surgery. All patients will be sent home with a short diary that will allow them to record their medication usage, pain scores, and potential side effects in the week following surgery. The diary with this information will be returned when the patients come back for their standard-of-care two week follow-up appointment. No additional visits or appointments beyond what the procedure already entails are needed to participate in this study. The treatment (morphine/clonidine or normal saline injection) will be chosen by chance, like flipping a coin. Neither the participant nor the study doctor will choose which treatment the patient gets. There will be an equal chance of being given either treatment. Neither the participant nor the study doctor will know which treatment is assigned. Morphine and clonidine are FDA-approved drugs being used in a non-approved context (hip injection). All standard of care procedures will take place to ensure patient safety during and after surgery, while the patients are in the outpatient surgical center. All adverse events will be properly documented and reported to the IRB. Data Management: Data points include age, sex, height, weight, tobacco use, VAS pain scores, discharge times, duration of surgery, discharge criteria score, medication use, and scores from the QoR-15 survey. All information that includes personally identifying information, such as name or medical record number, is not entered into the database with the medical information. Identifying information is only entered into a separate database that links the patient to an arbitrary study number. Statistical analysis of the data will include a Student's T-Test, non-parametric Mann Whitney test, and chi-square test. If there is substantial data missing for a subject, which would be otherwise essential for analysis, the subject's information for that particular analysis will be excluded. To the best extent possible, data that can be interpolated will be utilized.


Inclusion Criteria: - Any patient undergoing a hip arthroscopy procedure for femoracetabular impingement by the senior surgeon (M.T.) Exclusion Criteria: - Morphine contraindication - Clonidine contraindication - Pregnant women - Prisoners - Adults unable to consent

Study is Available At:

Original ID:




Secondary ID:

Study Acronym:

Brief Title:

Intra-articular Morphine and Clonidine Injections for Pain Management in Hip Arthroscopy

Official Title:

Prospective Assessment of Intraoperative Intra-articular Morphine and Clonidine Injection in Hip Arthroscopy on Postoperative Pain Management

Overall Status:


Study Phase:

Phase 4



Minimum Age:

18 Years

Maximum Age:


Quick Facts

Healthy Volunteers
Oversight Has DMC
Study Is FDA Regulated
Study Is Section 801
Has Expanded Access

Study Source:

Northwestern University

Oversight Authority:

United States: Institutional Review Board

Reasons Why Stopped:

Study Type:


Study Design:

Number of Arms:


Number of Groups:


Total Enrollment:


Enrollment Type:


Overall Contact Information

Official Name:Michael Terry, MD
Principal Investigator
Northwestern University

Study Dates

Start Date:November 2015
Completion Date:May 2017
Completion Type:Actual
Primary Completion Date:May 2017
Primary Completion Type:Actual
Verification Date:September 2019
Last Changed Date:September 19, 2019
First Received Date:August 18, 2015
First Results Date:April 19, 2019

Study Outcomes

Outcome Type:Primary Outcome
Measure:Opioid Consumption in the Acute Postoperative Period
Time Frame:Recorded intraoperatively, during PACU stay, 6 hours post discharge, 18 hours post discharge, 24 hou
Safety Issues:False
Description:The total usage of opioid medication (mEq) for pain relief in the intraoperative period and again through the postoperative recovery period from arrival in the PACU through 7 days post op
Outcome Type:Secondary Outcome
Measure:Visual Analog Scale (VAS) Pain Scores
Time Frame:Immediately preoperative (5-10 minutes before surgery), immediately postoperative (5-10 minutes afte
Safety Issues:False
Description:Patients will rate their pain (0-10) on the Visual Analog Scale with higher scores for the VAS indicated elevated pain intensity reported by the patient for the indicated time point
Outcome Type:Secondary Outcome
Measure:Quality of Recovery (QoR-15) Scores for Patient Reported Recovery Following Surgery
Time Frame:Preoperative to 24 hrs. post operatively
Safety Issues:False
Description:The Quality of Recovery questionnaire (QoR-15) is a 15 question patient reported outcome measure used to evaluate the quality of recovery following surgical anesthesia concerning pain, physical function, and psychological factors; reported as a summative

Study Interventions

Intervention Type:Drug
Name:Morphine with clonidine
Description:see arm description
Arm Name:Morphine with Clonidine
Intervention Type:Other
Name:Normal saline
Description:see arm description
Arm Name:Normal Saline

Study Arms

Study Arm Type:Experimental
Arm Name:Morphine with Clonidine
Description:11 mL intra-articular injection of 10 mg morphine and 100 mcg clonidine in .9% NaCl solution at conclusion of hip arthroscopy procedure
Study Arm Type:Placebo Comparator
Arm Name:Normal Saline
Description:11 mL intra-articular injection of .9% NaCl solution at conclusion of hip arthroscopy procedure

Study Agencies

Agency Class:Other
Agency Type:Lead Sponsor
Agency Name:Northwestern University

Sample and Retention Information

There are no available Sample and Retention Information

Study References

Reference Type:Reference
Citation:Lavelle W, Lavelle ED, Lavelle L. Intra-articular injections. Anesthesiol Clin. 2007 Dec;25(4):853-62, viii. Review.
Reference Type:Reference
Citation:Joshi W, Reuben SS, Kilaru PR, Sklar J, Maciolek H. Postoperative analgesia for outpatient arthroscopic knee surgery with intraarticular clonidine and/or morphine. Anesth Analg. 2000 May;90(5):1102-6.
Reference Type:Reference
Citation:Zeng C, Gao SG, Cheng L, Luo W, Li YS, Tu M, Tian J, Xu M, Zhang FJ, Jiang W, Wei LC, Lei GH. Single-dose intra-articular morphine after arthroscopic knee surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled studies. Arthroscopy. 2013 Aug;29(8):1450-8.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2013.04.005. Epub 2013 Jun 12. Review.
Reference Type:Reference
Citation:Yari M, Saeb M, Golfam P, Makhloogh Z. Analgesic efficacy of intra-articular morphine after arthroscopic knee surgery in sport injury patients. J Inj Violence Res. 2013 Jul;5(2):84-8. doi: 10.5249/jivr.v5i2.303. Epub 2013 Jul 1.
Reference Type:Reference
Citation:Stein C, Comisel K, Haimerl E, Yassouridis A, Lehrberger K, Herz A, Peter K. Analgesic effect of intraarticular morphine after arthroscopic knee surgery. N Engl J Med. 1991 Oct 17;325(16):1123-6.
Reference Type:Reference
Citation:Ramsay MA. Acute postoperative pain management. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2000 Jul;13(3):244-7.
Reference Type:Reference
Citation:Lynch TS, Terry MA, Bedi A, Kelly BT. Hip arthroscopic surgery: patient evaluation, current indications, and outcomes. Am J Sports Med. 2013 May;41(5):1174-89. doi: 10.1177/0363546513476281. Epub 2013 Feb 28.

Data Source: ClinicalTrials.gov

Date Processed: January 21, 2020

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