Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104

  • Brain Ischemia Hypoxia


Neonates presenting with neurologic symptoms require rapid, non-invasive imaging with high spatial resolution and tissue contrast. The purpose of this study is to evaluate brain perfusion using contrast-enhanced ultrasound CEUS in bedside monitoring of neonates and infants with hypoxic ischemic injury. Investigational CEUS scan will be performed separately from clinically indicated conventional US, in the ICU. Subjects will be scanned with CEUS at two different time-points (at the time HII is first suspected or diagnosed and at time of MRI scan), separately from clinically indicated ultrasound. The CEUS scan will be interpreted by the sponsor-investigator. The study will be conducted at one site, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. It is expected that up to 100 subjects will be enrolled per year, for up to two years, for a total enrollment of up to 200 subjects.

Study summary:

Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is a novel imaging technique in which gas-filled microbubbles, smaller than red blood cells, generate increased signal due to the acoustic impedance mismatch. Injection of ultrasound contrast agents into blood increase the echogenicity, allowing enhanced visualization of a blood vessel. Ultrasound contrast agents have been approved for use in Europe for almost two decades. In the case of SonoVue (now called LumasonTM), a second-generation lipid/sulfur hexafluoride US contrast agent (Bracco, Milan, Italy), European Union approved its intravenous use in adults in 2001. The FDA in the United States just recently approved the use of LumasonTM for evaluation of focal hepatic lesions in pediatric population in 2016, and very recently (Jan 2017) approved its use in children for the evaluation of the urinary tract in pediatric patients with known or suspected vesicoureteral reflux. For the remainder of clinical applications, the ultrasound contrast agents are being used off-label in both Europe and the United States. There is already good evidence in the literature that CEUS may be very valuable in children, and that is why it is routinely performed off-label for this purpose in the USA. However, there are ways in which it could be improved, and more studies are needed to definitively establish its diagnostic performance. Sulfur hexafluoride lipid-type A microspheres (LumasonTM, Bracco Inc) is an FDA-approved ultrasound contrast agent. The study duration per subject will be approximately 15 minutes including the time to prepare LumasonTM contrast agent and perform the CEUS, as well as the 60 minute monitoring period after the first and second injection of LumasonTM. CEUS will be performed at the time HII is first suspected or diagnosed and within 24 hours of clinically indicated MRI (which occurs approximately on day 5 of life) for a total of two CEUS exams of 1 hour and 15-minute duration each. Study participation will be complete when the 60 minute monitoring period after the second CEUS is complete. Injection of LumasonTM contrast agent will be performed via the existing peripheral intravenous line or central line using the FDA-recommended dose of up to 0.03 mg/kg. Contrast-agent injection will be performed twice per CEUS scan to ensure image quality and test reproducibility. In the case of more stable patients without an IV line, a peripheral IV line will be started to conduct the investigational CEUS. Two bolus injections will performed to evaluate for dynamic brain perfusion and several 2-minute cine clips as well as static images will be acquired during the exam. Qualitative analysis with visual assessment and quantitative analysis of the acquired CEUS scans will be performed and interpreted by the PI. The scans will be assessed for diagnostic quality of images, artifacts encountered, and the presence of additional contributory diagnostic information.


Inclusion Criteria: 1. Males and females aged 1.5 years or younger with open fontanelles and known or suspected hypoxic ischemic injury. 2. Post menstrual age of 34 weeks or older 3. Patient in the CHOP NICU or PICU 4. Parental permission Exclusion Criteria: 1. Medical history of Lumason hypersensitivity 2. Hemodynamic instability as defined by rapid escalation of cardiopulmonary support in the past 12-24 hours, as defined by the clinical care team including ≥ 1 intensive care physician not part of the study team 3. Pulmonary insufficiency as defined by FiO2 requirements of > 40% and/or subjects with pulmonary hypertension requiring nitric oxide

Study is Available At:

Original ID:




Secondary ID:

Study Acronym:

Brief Title:

CEUS Evaluation of Hypoxic Ischemic Injury

Official Title:

Improved Diagnosis and Prognostication of Hypoxic Ischemic Injury in Neonates and Infants Using Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound

Overall Status:


Study Phase:

Phase 3



Minimum Age:


Maximum Age:

18 Months

Quick Facts

Healthy Volunteers
Oversight Has DMC
Study Is FDA Regulated
Study Is Section 801
Has Expanded Access

Study Source:

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

Oversight Authority:

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Reasons Why Stopped:

Study Type:


Study Design:

Number of Arms:


Number of Groups:


Total Enrollment:


Enrollment Type:


Overall Contact Information

Primary Contact:Misun Hwang, MD

Study Dates

Start Date:December 1, 2020
Completion Date:September 2021
Completion Type:Anticipated
Primary Completion Date:September 2021
Primary Completion Type:Anticipated
Verification Date:January 2021
Last Changed Date:January 7, 2021
First Received Date:May 25, 2018

Study Outcomes

Outcome Type:Primary Outcome
Measure:Qualitative and quantitative assessment of CEUS evaluation of brain perfusion
Time Frame:2 years
Safety Issues:False
Description:Specific analysis plan consists of both qualitative and quantitative assessment in which description of focal perfusion deficit or lesion, for instance, is reported in correlation with clinical information. Perfusion abnormalities will be qualitatively ev

Study Interventions

Intervention Type:Drug
Name:Sulfur hexafluoride lipid-type A microspheres
Description:Injection of Sulfur hexafluoride lipid-type A microspheres (Lumason) contrast agent will be performed via the existing peripheral intravenous line using the FDA-recommended dose of 0.03 mg/kg.
Arm Name:Contrast-enhanced Ultrasonography

Study Arms

Study Arm Type:Experimental
Arm Name:Contrast-enhanced Ultrasonography
Description:Intravenous administration of contrast agent Sulfur hexafluoride lipid-type A microspheres before performing contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). In pediatric patients, after reconstitution 0.03 mL per kg is administered intravenously. The weight-based dose of 0.03 mL per kg will be repeated one time during a single examination. Following each injection, an intravenous flush of 0.9% Sodium Chloride is injected. The study duration per subject will be approximately 15 minutes including the time to

Study Agencies

Agency Class:Other
Agency Type:Lead Sponsor
Agency Name:Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Agency Class:Industry
Agency Type:Collaborator
Agency Name:Bracco Diagnostics, Inc

Sample and Retention Information

There are no available Sample and Retention Information

Study References

There are no available Study References

Data Source:

Date Processed: July 25, 2021

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