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Spearfish, South Dakota 57783

  • Proprioception


University students ages 18-45, with no recent history of back injury and no history of back surgery, were recruited. Participants completed proprioception testing consisting of a standing side bending and seated spinal flexion test. Participants performed each test once, then were blindfolded and asked to replicate the tests 10 times. After the initial proprioceptive testing, the participants were randomly split into four groups and performed a 10-minute intervention exercise, before repeating the proprioceptive tests for final measurements. The four groups included: graded motor imagery, mirror visual feedback, augmented biofeedback, and diaphragmatic breathing. Participants also completed a Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale to rate their enjoyment of their intervention task -For the seated forward flexion test, the participants' C7 and S2 vertebrae were identified and used as markers. The participants were asked to bend forward until the tape measure increased 5 cm from the original distance between the C7 and S2 vertebrae. Similar to the seated flexion test, during the side-bending task, the participants were asked to side bend until the tip of their middle finger was 10 cm closer to the floor. The participants were asked to memorize that point in their mind; they were then blindfolded and asked to repeat the movement 10 times, trying to recreate the original position to the best of their ability. Between initial and final measurements of proprioception, the participants were randomly assigned to one of the following four groups for interventions for a 10-minute training session: - Graded Motor Imagery Group: Participants were shown several flashcards with pictures of individuals' back oriented to either the flexed or side bent position. The participants stated which direction the image depicted and visualized themselves making the movement identified in the picture. - Mirror Visual Feedback Group: Participants viewed themselves in a mirror while performing flexion and side bending movements. -Augmented Biofeedback Group: Participants used an augmented musculoskeletal feedback system smartphone application app and small sensors with Bluetooth technology to translate the movement of the participant into an avatar on the game. -Diaphragmatic Breathing Group: Participants were told to sit on a chair with their back straight and feet flat on the floor with one hand on their chest and one hand on their stomach. They performed diaphragmatic breathing in a slow 4 second box method: breathing in for 4 seconds, holding for 4 seconds, breathing out for 4 seconds, and then hold for 4 seconds


Inclusion Criteria: - Healthy university students ages 18-35 - Must be able to perform low intensity exercise Exclusion Criteria: - Past medical history of back surgery - Back pain within the past 6 months - Musculoskeletal injury within the past 6 months

Study is Available At:

Original ID:




Secondary ID:

Study Acronym:

Brief Title:

Comparing the Effectiveness of Various Interventions on Improving Lumbar Proprioception

Official Title:

Comparing the Effectiveness of Various Interventions on Improving Lumbar Proprioception

Overall Status:


Study Phase:




Minimum Age:

18 Years

Maximum Age:

35 Years

Quick Facts

Healthy Volunteers
Oversight Has DMC
Study Is FDA Regulated
Study Is Section 801
Has Expanded Access

Study Source:

Black Hills State University

Oversight Authority:

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Reasons Why Stopped:

Study Type:


Study Design:

Number of Arms:


Number of Groups:


Total Enrollment:


Enrollment Type:


Study Dates

Start Date:February 3, 2020
Completion Date:November 10, 2020
Completion Type:Actual
Primary Completion Date:November 10, 2020
Primary Completion Type:Actual
Verification Date:January 2021
Last Changed Date:January 14, 2021
First Received Date:January 12, 2021

Study Outcomes

Outcome Type:Primary Outcome
Time Frame:Day 1
Safety Issues:False
Description:Change in lumbar proprioception as assessed through the seated forward flexion test measured in cm following a single training session.

Study Interventions

Intervention Type:Other
Name:Exercise Based Interventions
Description:Proprioception Training Interventions
Arm Name:Augmented Biofeedback Group

Study Arms

Study Arm Type:Sham Comparator
Arm Name:Diaphragmatic Breathing Group
Study Arm Type:Experimental
Arm Name:Augmented Biofeedback Group
Study Arm Type:Experimental
Arm Name:Mirror Visual Feedback Group
Study Arm Type:Experimental
Arm Name:Graded Motor Imagery Group

Study Agencies

Agency Class:Other
Agency Type:Lead Sponsor
Agency Name:Black Hills State University

Sample and Retention Information

There are no available Sample and Retention Information

Study References

There are no available Study References

Data Source:

Date Processed: August 04, 2021

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