Expired Study
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Irvine, California 92612


Whereas the smoking prevalence rates in the general population are declining, rates among people diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) continue to be elevated. Smoking may be a form of self-medication in people with ADHD, which has specific reinforcing mechanisms such as improvement of ADHD core symptoms, enhancement of moods and arousal, or a combination of both. In addition, the reinforcing effects of smoking may be potentiated by stimulant medication. The study examined the reinforcing effects of ad libitum smoking with and without stimulant medication in adult smokers with clinically diagnosed ADHD. Participants were adults with ADHD. The effects of smoking and stimulant medication were studied both in the laboratory and in everyday life. In the laboratory, participants completed the Continuous Performance Task in order to assess attention and inhibition in response to smoking a cigarette versus abstinence with and without ADHD medication. In everyday life, participants were asked to undergo 2 conditions: ad libitum smoking with ADHD medication and ad libitum smoking with placebo pill. During each condition, ADHD symptoms were assessed with an electronic handheld diary for 2 days during waking hours in natural settings. Specifically, the electronic diary will monitor ADHD symptoms (e.g., inattention, impulsivity) during smoking and nonsmoking occasions. Smoking was monitored via self-report and salivary cotinine. The study identified the reinforcing mechanisms of smoking in interaction with ADHD medication. The findings will contribute to a better understanding of nicotine addiction and facilitate the development of targeted smoking cessation and prevention programs for individuals with ADHD and other people with deficiencies in impulse control and excessive risk taking.


Inclusion Criteria: - An age of 18 to 45 years - A history of ADHD - Current diagnosis of ADHD according to clinical criteria - Current treatment with stimulant medication - Smoking of 10 cigarettes or more per day Exclusion Criteria: - Treatment for any major medical illness such as cancer, heart disease, diabetes, skin diseases, current major depressive episode, and schizophrenia even if currently controlled by medication - Current pregnancy, as measured by a pregnancy test (Clear Blue Easy, Unipath, Bedford, UK), or planning to become pregnant within the next 6 months. These individuals will not be included because smoking may cause harm to the unborn fetus - Nursing mothers - Non-English speaking people, because the majority of measurements used in the study have not been validated in languages other than English



Primary Contact:

Principal Investigator
Jean G Gehricke, Ph.D.
University of California, Irvine

Backup Contact:


Location Contact:

Irvine, California 92612
United States

There is no listed contact information for this specific location.

Site Status: N/A

Data Source: ClinicalTrials.gov

Date Processed: October 09, 2019

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