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Cincinnati, Ohio 45242

  • Smoking


- The investigators hope their study will answer the question of whether or not fetal testosterone levels are increased in female newborns exposed to nicotine as a result of maternal smoking during pregnancy. Secondarily they plan to also evaluate maternal cotinine and testosterone levels and newborn anogenital distance, second digit to fourth digit (2D:4D) finger length ratio, newborn length and birth weight. - The investigators hope by performing this study, they will help to uncover the effect of tobacco exposure in utero on human female fetal testosterone levels, thus improving the counseling for tobacco use in pregnancy.

Study summary:

Epidemiological studies and laboratory research performed on animal models have revealed that the effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy go beyond the perinatal period due to the effect of nicotine on increasing fetal testosterone levels. This is of great concern as an increase fetal testosterone has been linked to impaired reproductive development and infertility in both male and female offspring, early onset of menarche in females, shorter body height, increased BMI, shortened anogenital distance and low second digit to fourth digit finger length ratio. Additionally elevated fetal testosterone levels have been associated with development of psychosocial disorders such as Autism, ADHD, antisocial behavior, conduct disorder, adult criminal behavior, and sensation seeking behavior. Although there have been a few animal studies that have investigated the effects of maternal nicotine exposure on fetal testosterone levels with review of the epidemiologic literature on subsequent adverse implications, no known human studies have been performed to further investigate the relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and female fetal testosterone levels.


Inclusion Criteria: - Women, >/= 18 years old - Current singleton pregnancy - Recruited prior to 3rd trimester lab visit - Known female fetus confirmed by Ultrasound, typically performed 18 to 22 weeks, or later gestational age (GA) - Self reported smoker (of at least ½ pack per day) or non-smoker documented in electronic chart. - Eligibility will not be limited by desired mode of delivery Exclusion Criteria: - Patients who successfully quit smoking at <14 weeks gestation and who have not resumed smoking during the pregnancy will be excluded from the case/control arm of study. - Patients considered light smokers, who self report smoking less than ½ pack per day. - Patients with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome



Primary Contact:

Principal Investigator
Dave Dhanraj, MD, MBA
TriHealth Inc.

Backup Contact:


Location Contact:

Cincinnati, Ohio 45242
United States

There is no listed contact information for this specific location.

Site Status: N/A

Data Source:

Date Processed: March 26, 2020

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