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Type 2 Diabetes Clinical Research

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition. It results in too much sugar in the blood stream due to the body's inability to efficiently use insulin. High blood sugar levels can eventually affect the circulatory, nervous and immune system. Complications may include kidney failure, heart attack and stroke. According to the CDC, approximately 34 million Americans have diabetes, with 90-95% of cases being Type 2. This more prevalent type occurs in adults.


The most common symptoms of Type 2 diabetes include excessive thirst and frequent urination. Patients also report having fatigue, numbness in the hands/feet, and a persistent feeling of hunger.


Numerous clinical trials are underway to aimed at improving treatment of Type 2 diabetes and quality of life for patients.


Those studying Type 2 diabetes have suggested that the problem lies in the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Therefore, Type 2 diabetes clinical trials now focus on increasing the efficiency of the beta cells.


The following is a list of oral anti-hyperglycemic drugs that can benefit type 2 diabetes patients.


Oral Hypoglycemic Medications

  • Sulfonylureas (glipizide, glyburide, gliclazide, glimepiride)
  • Meglitinides (repaglinide and nateglinide)
  • Biguanides (metformin)
  • Thiazolidinediones (rosiglitazone, pioglitazone)
  • αa-Glucosidase inhibitors (acarbose, miglitol, voglibose)
  • DPP-4 inhibitors (sitagliptin, saxagliptin, vildagliptin, linagliptin, alogliptin)
  • SGLT2 inhibitors (dapagliflozin and canagliflozin)
  • Cycloset (bromocriptine)

References
  • https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/basics/type2.html#:~:text=More%20than%2034%20million%20Americans,adults%20are%20also%20developing%20it
  • Griffin, Simon J., James K. Leaver, and Greg J. Irving. "Impact of metformin on cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis of randomised trials among people with type 2 diabetes." Diabetologia 60.9 (2017): 1620-1629
  • Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad, and Ralph A. DeFronzo. "Is it time to change the type 2 diabetes treatment paradigm? Yes! GLP-1 RAs should replace metformin in the type 2 diabetes algorithm." Diabetes Care 40.8 (2017): 1121-1127
  • Min, Thinzar, and Stephen C. Bain. "The role of tirzepatide, dual GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist, in the management of type 2 diabetes: the SURPASS clinical trials." Diabetes Therapy 12.1 (2021): 143-157
  • Perkovic, Vlado, et al. "Canagliflozin and renal outcomes in type 2 diabetes: results from the CANVAS Program randomised clinical trials." The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology 6.9 (2018): 691-704
  • Kohler, Sven, et al. "Safety and tolerability of empagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes: pooled analysis of phase I–III clinical trials." Advances in Therapy 34.7 (2017): 1707-1726
  • Jabbour, Serge, et al. "Dapagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a pooled analysis of safety data from phase IIb/III clinical trials." Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism 20.3 (2018): 620-628